Brain fog: Causes and how to cope

Published 2 Oct 2018

Brain fog: Causes and how to cope

Brain fog affects a variety of mental processes, including memory and concentration. It can be a symptom of a medical condition or may be related to lifestyle factors, such as stress or diet.



What is brain fog?

Brain fog can make a person feel as if the processes of thinking, understanding, and remembering are not working as they should.

Different brain functions can be affected by brain fog, including:

  • memory, which allows information to be stored and recalle
  • the ability to use and understand language
  • information processing, which aids understanding and focus
  • visual and spatial skills used in drawing, recognizing shapes and navigating space and calculation abilities
  • executive functioning abilities used for organization, problem-solving, and planning

If one or more of these functions is impaired, someone may have difficulty understanding, find it hard to focus or concentrate, forget things, and experience mental fatigue.

Brain fog and MS

Multiple sclerosis or MS is a lifelong condition that affects the brain and spinal cord, causing problems with movement, balance, vision, and sensation.

MS can cause areas of inflammation and damage or lesions on the brain. These lesions can affect how the brain functions.

The functions most often affected by MS are information processing, memory, and executive functioning abilities. Many people living with MS will experience some changes in their ability to make decisions and to process and remember information.

In most cases, these changes will be mild to moderate and will not affect a person's ability to live independently. They may, however, cause some frustration or difficulty completing daily tasks, such as finding house keys or shopping for groceries.

There are a number of strategies that can help someone living with MS maintain their memory and information processing skills, including:

  • Avoiding distractions, finding a quiet space to concentrate on tasks, and taking regular breaks to help with focus.
  • Asking family and friends to speak more slowly, and allowing extra time to process information.
  • Using organization techniques, such as keeping a diary or making lists.
  • Finding somewhere memorable in the home to keep important items, such as keys, that can be easily lost.

Other medical causes

Depression may lead to brain fog symptoms, such as loss of concentration and fatigue.

Long-term conditions, such as fibromyalgia, which causes pain across the whole body, or chronic fatigue syndrome, which results in severe tiredness, often cause problems with concentration or memory.

Depression is a serious mood disorder that affects how someone thinks and feels. Problems with memory, focus, and decision-making can contribute to the feeling of brain fog.

A person with depression may also have problems sleeping and lack energy, which can make concentrating and completing tasks hard.

Iron deficiency anemia is a condition that affects the red blood cells in the body. If the red blood cells fail to deliver enough oxygen to organs and tissues, a person may experience mental and physical tiredness, alongside other symptoms, such as shortness of breath.

Thyroid dysfunctions, such as hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's disease can also cause brain fog. Older people with thyroid conditions are particularly susceptible to experiencing problems with memory.

Changing hormone levels can also affect brain functioning, especially during pregnancy or menopause. A small study found that the hormone changes during the menopausal transition made it harder for women to take in and remember new information, and to focus their attention on challenging tasks.

Some medication can also affect mental functioning. Chemotherapy drugs have many side effects, including on a person's memory and concentration. Sleeping pills may have an impact on short-term memory, and some antidepressants can cause mental confusion.


Treatment for brain fog will depend on the cause. If someone has MS, a doctor can work with them to develop a care plan that includes medication, physical therapy, and self-care through diet and exercise.

Other medical conditions, such as anemia, should be treated by a doctor. Brain fog will usually ease when the underlying condition has improved.

If a person is experiencing brain fog as a symptom of depression, a doctor may recommend cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT, exercise, or even a change in medication.

Making some simple lifestyle changes can help reduce or get rid of brain fog if it is not caused by a medical condition.

Reducing stress is not always easy, but a person can begin by pinpointing the cause, such as money or relationship worries.

If someone is feeling stressed because they have taken too much on, it can be helpful to hand some tasks to someone else or improve time management skills.

Getting enough sleep is crucial to maintaining good brain function, as fatigue will affect concentration and focus. A person should aim to go to bed and get up at the same time every day, relax before getting into bed, and try to make the bedroom a quiet, restful place.

Regular exercise can reduce stress and increase energy levels, both of which may improve mental focus.

Adding exercise to a daily routine can be as simple as taking a walk during lunch, or cycling to work instead of driving.

Engaging in hobbies and spending time with family and friends can be a good way to feel more relaxed. Mindfulness is another method that can help to reduce stress and increase relaxation so that a person's thinking becomes clearer.

Diet can have an impact on energy levels, and many people will recognize the feeling of losing concentration if they have not eaten for some time. Eating nutritious meals and snacks regularly throughout the day can help reduce brain fog.

Caffeine and alcohol can cause difficulty sleeping and energy crashes, so a person may wish to reduce their consumption if they struggle sleeping or have difficulty focusing.

Strategies to help with memory and concentration can make the situation more manageable in cases where brain fog is part of a long-term condition.

Do you suffer from brain fog? What do you do to help the condition? Have you tried any of these tips?


Medical News Today


lesmal • Ambassador
on 03/10/2018

Thank you for an interesting article which brings out many aspects and causes for brain fog! 

I have been hypothyroid for a few years' now and have never believed the medication given has worked or improved the symptoms of memory, brain fog and concentration. They were all obvious before diagnosis, but being on medication makes it worse never mind what the levels are. 

When one has other health issues, i.e. epilepsy, one is on more medication, if not a combination of two/three which naturally can all react and make the issues worse.

All tips above are useful; thank you! 

JosephineO • Community manager
on 03/10/2018

@lesmal You're welcome :)

Yes, brain fog can be a tough side effect to being on medication but hopefully these tips will help some people.

on 21/11/2018

I suffer with m.e and had a mini stroke 3 years ago. I feel so stupid sometimes, as I can't remember what I did yesterday, it's extremely upsetting for me because people laugh ........ Especially my partner who makes fun of me in front of others as well as me. I used to be so good at remembering and it is devastating now, I really try to remember but it is just a fog.

JosephineO • Community manager
on 22/11/2018

@pamelaJewell Hello Pamela,

I'm so sorry that you're suffering from brain fog, it is never easy and can be especially difficult if you feel that you're also being laughed at for it.

We recently did a testimonial with someone who shared some tips that she does to help her Mother remember things. Here is the link, I hope it will be of interest to you.

on 13/02/2019

I can't say anything I do helps the brain fog, I know it totally disables me. I do walk at least 2.9 miles most morning and a little shorter in the afternoons. I do drink coffee and fruit juice but  I don't usually have trouble sleeping, I'm so tired by 21.00 I go to bed.  Then it's not long before the side i m laying on starts to hurt, I try and ignore it  but in the end I have to change positions but it's not long before it's starts again, in the end l just get up and watch TV. It can be such a long night. It never was as bad as this, it's only since they have changed my pill brand. I can't even have a pain pill over night as they have started to reduce the amount l get every month. I can't run out 

thanks for the article at least im not really doing anything that will make things worse.


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