Epileptic seizures: recognising the symptoms and how to help
Published 7 Jan 2020 • By Louise Bollecker
Do you know all the forms an epileptic seizure can take? How about the right actions to take when you or someone else is having a seizure? Read and share our guide to epileptic seizures!
The many symptoms of an epileptic seizure
When most people think of an epileptic seizure they think of a generalised tonic-clonic convulsion, which causes a sudden loss of consciousness. This is often preceded by a shout or moan and the patient may experience full-body muscle contractions and tremors. They may accidentally bite their tongue and their eyes may roll back into their head, among other things. Following the seizure, the patient gradually regains normal consciousness after a period of confusion and may feel exhausted afterwards.
Other types of epilepsy
This idea of epilepsy though is quite limited, but it's the best known because it's so visible. In reality, the clinical symptoms of epilepsy can vary widely depending on where the electrical disturbance is located in the brain, and if the disturbance is concentrated in one area or spread out. It's more accurate to talk about "epilepsies" in the plural since several variations exist.
Let's take a look at some of the different symptoms one may observe:
- - Partial seizures only affect certain parts of the body and cause motor or sensorial impairments, memory loss or loss of consciousness, and may sometimes worsen into full-blown seizures.
- - Absences - for a few seconds the patient may suddenly go silent and stare into space, and stop reacting to any external stimuli.
- - Involuntary muscle contractions, known as myoclonic seizures
- - Abnormal movements (or ticks): the patient may grind their teeth, experience discombobulated movements in the hands and feet, roll their head or eyes.
- - Sensory hallucinations: these can include visions, or hearing, smelling or tasting things that are not there.
- - Experiencing "déjà vu", or feeling as if one is dreaming.
- - A purely psychological or emotional seizure: sudden fear, uncontrollable laughing, unwanted thoughts, etc.
What's the best way to handle an epileptic seizure?
What you should do:
Is it a tonic-clonic seizure with convulsions? Here are some tips to handle the situation:
- - Try to stay calm and don't get upset. Tell yourself the seizure will only last a little while.
- - Keep the patient from falling: lay the person down gently, and as soon as you can, turn them on their side.
- - If the person is already on the floor, place a cushion or soft object behind their head, that way if the convulsions intensify, they won't bang their head on a hard surface.
- - Once the seizure is finished, the patient should be turned on their side to allow them to breathe and swallow saliva properly; confirm the person is breathing normally, especially if they look pale.
- - If others are nearby, ask them not to crowd around the patient: the noise and confusion will make it harder for the patient to calm down.
- - Make sure to stay with the patient after the seizure has ended as they may still feel confused and disoriented for a few minutes after the seizure is finished.
What you should not do:
There are some old wives' tales about what to do during a seizure. However, under no circumstances should you do the following:
- - Try to open the patient's mouth
- - Insert an object into the patient's mouth
- - Hold down their arms or legs: don't attempt to limit their movements as this could provoke an unpredictable reaction.
- - Don't try to bring the patient around by talking or shouting at them: they may be able to hear you, but they won't be able to respond.
These types of practices are not only unhelpful, but they could also be dangerous: causing chipped teeth, intense muscle pain, etc. The person attempting to save the patient could also get hurt themselves.
In the case of status epilepticus, during which the seizure lasts for a very long time and the patient does not regain consciousness, or when one seizure is almost immediately followed by another, you should call an ambulance and get the patient to hospital as soon as possible.
Has someone helped you or have you helped someone else during an epileptic seizure?
What tips would you add to this article? Do you have questions or advice? Leave them in the comments below!
This article was written under the supervision of Dr. Henri RUBINSTEIN, a neurological research specialist based in Paris.